02 февраля 2015
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02 февраля 2015
This week we are celebrating Groundhog day!
Groundhog Day is right around the corner. Perhaps you've heard about the day, but you're not sure how the tradition got started. We've got you covered.
Here's everything you need to know about the day:
What is Groundhog Day?
Technically, Groundhog Day is the midway point between the winter solstice and spring equinox. The day's history is rooted in the celebration of Candlemas.
What is the significance?
Whether or not the groundhog sees it's shadow is believed to be an indicator of how much longer winter will last. If a shadow is seen, it suggests 6 more weeks of winter. If the groundhog doesn't see it's shadow, spring will come early, folklore suggests.
When is it?
Groundhog Day is celebrated on Feb. 2.
Who is Punxsutawney Phil?
To many people, Punxsutawney Phil is the only groundhog that can predict the weather. He never dies (or ages), resides in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, and is cared for by the men who volunteer to be a part of the Inner Circle.
There are other animals that claim to predict the weather, but locals believe they have nothing on Phil.
Is Phil the only groundhog who predicts the weather?
How do you celebrate Groundhog Day?
Groundhog Day is celebrated by throwing out all of your scarves (or buying new ones). Just kidding. There's a big Groundhog Day celebration that takes place in Punxsutawney and begins early in the morning with tens of thousands of people gathering to see if the weather-predicting groundhog spots his shadow or not.
Please note: Alcohol is not allowed at this celebration, but there are several balls and events that take place in Punxsutawney the night before where you can get an alcoholic beverage.
- Groundhog Day 2015: Going to Punxsutawney? Here's what you need to know
- Dispatches from Punxsutawney: 6 tips if you're headed into town for Groundhog Day
Is this like the 1993 film Groundhog Day?
Yes, except there's only one Groundhog Day per year. And, Groundhog Day wasn't filmed in Punxsutawney, nor did it feature the real Phil.Свернуть
26 января 2015
This week we are celebrating Australia Day!
Australia Day is on January 26 and commemorates the establishment of the first European settlement at Port Jackson, now part of Sydney, in 1788. It is an opportunity for Australians to come together to celebrate their country and culture. There are reflections on the achievements of the nation and explorations of way to make the country even better in the future.
Australians show their pride for their country on Australia Day.©iStockphoto.com/RichVintage
What do people do?
Many people have a day off work and use the day to picnic in a park, to go shopping or to play or to watch sports events. In some places, particularly Lake Burley Griffin, spectacular public fireworks displays are held. In addition, the Australian of the Year Awards are presented. These are awards for Australians who have made an outstanding contribution to their country or community.
In some towns and cities, citizenship ceremonies are held on Australia Day. These are ceremonies to welcome immigrants to the country who have been granted Australian citizenship. Although official, these ceremonies often have a festive atmosphere.
Australia Day is a public holiday in all states and territories. All schools and post offices are closed. Some public transport services do not operate and others run a reduced service. Stores are often open, but may have reduced opening hours. There may be some congestion on roads, particularly close to major events.
On January 26, 1788, the First Fleet of 11 ships from Great Britain arrived at Port Jackson, which now forms Sydney Harbour. The First Fleet was led by Captain Arthur Philip. He established the Colony of New South Wales, the first penal colony in Australia. By 1808, January 26 was being celebrated as “First Landing Day” or “Foundation Day” with drinking and merriment.
Thirty years after the arrival of the First Fleet, in 1818, the Governor of Australia ordered a 30-gun salute, hosted a dinner ball at Government House and gave government employees a holiday. In the following years, employees of banks and other organizations were also given holidays. In the following decades, horse racing and regattas were popular activities on January 26.
In 1838, Foundation Day was Australia's first public holiday. It was also the occasion of the first public celebrations of the founding of Australia. The shores of Sydney Harbour were crowded and there was a firework display. By 1888, January 26 had become known as 'Anniversary Day' was celebrated in all colonies except Adelaide. In 1888, the centenary of the arrival of the First Fleet was celebrated with ceremonies, exhibitions, banquets, regattas, fireworks and the unveiling of a statue of Queen Victoria.
By 1935, January 26 was known as Australia Day in all states except New South Wales, where it was still called Anniversary Day. In 1938, large scale celebrations were held. These included a re-enactment of the landing of the First Fleet, which did not mention the convict status of many of the passengers on these ships. The re-enactment is included the removal of a group of Aborigines. Shortly before the celebrations, a group of Aboriginal activists arranged a “Day of Mourning”. They used this to campaign for citizenship and equal rights for Aborigines.
From 1946, January 26 was known as Australia Day in all states. However, the public holiday was moved to the Monday nearest to January 26 to create a long weekend. Since 1994, the Australia Day public holiday has been on January 26 in all states and territories.
The anniversary of the first permanent European settlement in Australia is not a cause for celebration for all citizens. Indigenous Australians often feel that the celebrations on Australia Day exclude them and their culture, which was thriving for thousands of years before the arrival of the First Fleet.
The main symbols of Australia Day are the symbols of Australia. These include the Australian national flag, with its representations of the Union Jack, the Commonwealth Star and the five stars of the Southern Cross, and the national anthem "Advance Australia Fair". Other symbols include the Golden Wattle, which is the national floral emblem, the opal, which is the national gemstone and the national colors of green and gold.Свернуть
20 января 2015
Английский разговорный клуб с носителем языка!
Если Вы хотите: свободно говорить по-английски, найти новых друзей,с пользой провести свободное время - тогда приходите в Английский Разговорный Клуб!
Разговорный английский клуб – встреча студентов, которых объединяет одна цель – желание общаться на иностранном языке в неформальной обстановке.
Посещая наш клуб, вы получите уникальный шанс:
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Ждем Вас каждую субботу!
Приходите и записывайтесь у наших администраторов и по телефонам:
8 (495) 589-92-50
8 (916) 934-57-37Свернуть
19 января 2015
RSPB Big Garden Birdwatch 24th-25th January 2015
The RSPB’s annual Big Garden Birdwatch – taking place this year on 24-25th January 2015 – is always a big highlight of garden bird’s population in UK. For one hour over the weekend many of British homes will count and record the different bird species that visit their garden. Their results, and those submitted by many hundreds of thousands of people up and down the UK, are vitally important for helping the RSPB to gain a snapshot of the health of different bird populations across the country.
What does RSPB mean?
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organization registered in England and Wales and in Scotland. It was founded as the Plumage League in 1889 by Emily Williamson. It works to promote conservation and protection of birds and the wider environment through public awareness campaigns, petitions and through the operation of nature reserves throughout the United Kingdom.
Why take part?
Bird populations are a great indicator of the health of the countryside. That’s why it’s so important to take part in surveys like Big Garden Birdwatch to keep an eye on the ups and downs of the wildlife where people live.
What we can do?
Birds that like hanging feeders: Blue tit, Long-tailed tit, Great tit
Choose some energy-rich seeds to give your flying visitors a feast they'll come back for time and time again.
Birds that feed on the ground: Collared dove, Blackbird, Dunnock, Wren.
For these birds, scatter food on your lawn or use a ground feeding tray or hopper well clear of cover to avoid lurking cats.
Feed anywhere birds: Blackcap, House sparrow, Bullfinch, Goldfinch, Greenfinch, Starling, Robin, Siskin.
Some birds will feed on the ground. They'll also feed at hanging feeders. In fact, as long as they get their food, some of our most popular garden birds really don't give a tweet about where they get it from.
Join thousands of others all over the world and pick an hour over the weekend to discover the wildlife in your garden, make feeders and help birds and animals to survive a long winter.Свернуть
15 января 2015
Внимание! Акция "Приведи друга" продлена!
Дорогие наши клиенты! Практически каждый день мы видим, как кто-то из Вас приводит в наш языковой клуб своих друзей, коллег или знакомых. Это не может не радовать, потому что мы делаем все возможное для Вашего комфорта и плодотворных занятий.
Мы благодарим Вас за рекомендации и уверены, что они не без оснований! Но наша благодарность выражается не только словами, но и действиями! Порекомендовав BBEnglish School знакомому, другу или коллеге, вы получаете скидку 20% на один месяц занятий!
• Скидка предоставляется на один месяц занятий.
• Другом Участника Акции может быть любое физическое лицо, не являющееся клиентом BBEnglish School на период проведения Акции.
• Скидка действует при условии оплаты занятий Вашим Другом.
• Вы можете получить скидку за каждого приведенного нового Друга. Скидки суммируются.
• Вы можете подарить одну полученную скидку одному Другу, которого привели в наш языковой клуб.
Если у Вас все еще нет друзей, то сейчас появился повод их найти!Свернуть
12 января 2015
This week we are celebrating World day of Snowman!
To know more read this article By allisonsnow.
January 18-World Day of Snowman
On 18 January to social and environmental projects in the sign of the snowman can be realized. How does this happen, and I need it? To build a snowman is easy. You roll three balls of snow and layered over one another. Done! For details of creativity serves only to refine but changes in the general basic form usually little.
When did snowmen begin?
The cultural history of the snowman begins with a negatively charged image of the snowman. Only at a time when you could enjoy the winter, the perception changed positively. As long as the terror of winter and thus freezing or starvation threatened snow was not a play and craft stuff. Then arose as postcards and you needed a symbol of the positive signal for the winter, began the friendly roly snowman its rapid spread. Today, the Thomas Kinkade snowman has a symbol already conquered other media, such as wrapping paper and leave the two-dimensional long. The Inflatable and illuminated snowmen, snowmen on pajamas, bedding and underwear or as a wooden figure. No variation seems too cheesy to make money.
Are there still evil snowmen?
Although the snowman is usually viewed positively, the formerly dominant image of the evil man out of snow has survived not quite. A very popular example is Bad Mr. Frosty , a video game character from the early days of console gaming. In the video game Clayfighter he belongs to the evil and emerged as in all episodes to as an identification symbol. But apart from some cartoon drawings of the snowman is now seen very positive, which manifests itself in the "World Day of the Snowman."
Why a World Day of Snowman?
In order to destroy illusions directly: The snowman is (only) a symbol, the most positive image is used. At the World Day of Snowman to social and environmental projects taking place. The choice of the symbol has fallen on the snowman because he is neither ideological nor religious usable. According to press release for this year's World Day of Snowman is intergenerational (playing with children), and also a symbol of transience and thus climate change.
Why the 18th January?
Even the date of the World Day is based on the Snowman website. Of course, the day must take place in winter. The 8 recalls the shape of a snowman. The day should not be too close to other festivals, so the snowman was a broom in the form of an added 1 to the side. Therefore, the 18th January. (Even the southern hemisphere has been not included in the consideration.
Are "world day for xy" generally useful? They appear but seemingly randomly distributed in the calendar and are usually not perceived. But it does not matter, is what motivated started a positive action and not fail. Under this premise, you can also celebrate the "World Day of the Snowman."Свернуть
05 января 2015
Gold Coast College 2015 New Special, Effective from 1st of January 2015
Gold Coast College 2015 New Special
Effective from 1st of January 2015
30 декабря 2014
Смотрите видео и фото отчет о прошедшем Christmas party в разделе "Галерея".
Спасибо всем участникам и гостям за отличное настроение!
С наступающим Новым Годом и Рождеством!Свернуть
22 декабря 2014
This week we are celebrating Christmas time!
And here is some very detailed information about Christmas time and Christmas celebrations in the United Kingdom.
Advent - (Four Sundays Before Christmas)
Advent is not widely celebrated in England, its celebration actually originated in Germany, although in the church calendar Advent is the official start of the run up to Christmas.
Two traditions that have caught on in England are the Advent calendar and the Advent candle. The Advent Calendar originated in the 19th Century from the protestant area of Germany. Protestant Christian families made a chalk line for every day in December until Christmas Eve. Before long, commercial entrepreneurs started replacing the ephemeral chalk lines with printed calendars. The first known Advent Calendar is for the advent of 1851. Nowadays it is usually a thin rectangular card with 24 or 25 doors. The doors are numbered 1-24/25. Door number 1 is opened on the 1st of December, door 2 on the 2nd etc. Behind each door there is a Christmas scene (but the most popular ones have a chocolate behind each door) .
An Advent candle often has 25 marks on it, a bit of the candle is burned down by one mark each day. In some homes, 24 candles are kept, one for each night from December 1 through Christmas eve. One candle is lit for a while on December 1, then a new candle is added each day for the 24 day period. However, it is now more common to have four candles for the four weeks before Christmas. One candle is lit on the first Sunday, two the second week and so on. The candles were often placed on a wreath upon the dining room table. Advent candles are lit in many homes, schools and churches, in England, with a final central candle lit on Christmas Day; these are often on a hanging decoration known as an "Advent Crown." They became exceedingly popular due to a children's TV programme called Blue Peter, who every year made an advent crown from old coathangers, tinsel and candles! Well, they used to use candles, but because of health and safety insanity they now give instructions using baubles - it's not really the same, but you can make an advent crown following the instructions in this pdf file.
Christmas Eve - December 24th
In England less emphasis is placed on Christmas Eve than in other countries, much more is made of Christmas Day and Boxing Day. Carol singing, midnight church services and going out to the pub are some of the activities that many families enjoy (sometimes all three activities can be combined into one fun night out!).
Night time on Christmas Eve though is a very exciting time for young children. It is the time when Santa or Father Christmas comes. They hang up their stockings and go to sleep. Santa and his elves make all the toys for Christmas in his home in Greenland. On Christmas Eve he piles all of the toys onto his sleigh and rides across the sky with his 9 reindeer (Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donner (or it may be Donder), Blitzen and of course ... Rudolf!). The most famous one is Rudolf the who is always the one at the front, to lead the way with his red nose. In the morning when the children wake up they open their stocking presents. Traditionally on Christmas Eve mince pies and sherry (or milk) are left out for Santa and nowadays carrots are left for his reindeer. Most children are in bed way before midnight waiting for Santa to visit.
The origins of the now traditional Christmas Celebration, distinct from earlier pagan winter holidays, date to sixth century England. By the middle ages, it was a well established important holiday, with traditional pageantry, customs, music and feasting all its own. Customs from pre Christian days were incorporated into the Celebrations, and many still remain.
However in 1647, the English parliament passed a law that made Christmas illegal, all festivities were banned by the Puritan leader Oliver Cromwell, who considered feasting and revelry on what was supposed to be a holy day to be immoral. The ban was lifted only when Cromwell lost power in 1660.
In Britain, the Holy Days and Fasting Days Act of 1551 (which has not yet been repealed) states that every citizen must attend a Christian church service on Christmas Day, and must not use any kind of vehicle to get to the service There are a large number of Britons who break this law every year. The law may have been intended to encourage humility by forcing even the wealthy to attend the church on foot, or perhaps it was simply to avoid the traffic and parking crush that universal attendance would otherwise have brought about.
Later, during Queen Victoria's reign, Christmas became a time for gift giving, and a special season for children.
Nowadays, according to research by, of all things, Jarlsberg cheese, the average family gets out of bed just before 8am and is ready to start opening presents by 8.19am. Once the wrapping paper has been torn off all the presents, the family sits down to breakfast at 9.02am, but not before they have tucked into a bit of chocolate at 8.39am.
13 per cent of families always attend church on Christmas Day.
Unfortunately all the excitement and stress means that at precisely 9.58 on Christmas morning the first rows begin, and the average parent ends up losing it, and they start to tell off their children for the first time around 11.07am.
The strain of cooking the big Christmas dinner sees the average Brit start to sip their first alcoholic drink at 11.48am.
27 per cent of families sit down to watch the Queen’s Speech.
Dinner is finally served at 3.24pm, with 85 per cent of people enjoying the traditional turkey with all the trimmings.
All that food and drink means the first person falls asleep at around 4.58pm, with dad being the leader in losing the "staying awake" battle. Almost half of those who do nod off end up annoying the others with their loud snoring. For those who manage to stay awake, family board games are brought out at 5.46pm.
38 per cent of families think that spending time with the family is the best thing about Christmas Day.
And lights out? 11.39pm.
The Queen's Message
One Christmas ritual not drawn from an ancient tradition is the British monarch's broadcast on Christmas day. The tradition began in 1932 when King George V read a special speech written by Rudyard Kipling. The broadcast was an enormous success . It began, "I speak now from my home and from my heart, to you all...".
Queen Elizabeth II continues the tradition to this day. Every year she broadcasts her message on Christmas Day, and it is heard by millions of people all over the world. In England most people watch or listen to it whilst digesting their Christmas Dinner!
Boxing Day - December 26th
In England Boxing Day celebrated on December 26th, is traditionally a time to give gifts to tradesmen, servants, and friends.
It originated in medieval times, when every priest was supposed to empty the alms box of his church and distribute gifts to the poor. Wealthy people indulged in huge Christmas feasts, and when they were finished, packed up the remains of feasts in boxes and gave them out to their servants. It didn't become widely celebrated though until Victorian England.
In Ireland there is an Irish custom called "feeding the wren". The custom is based on a legend of St. Stephen. Once he was forced to hide in a bush, but a chattering wren gave him away. In the past Children caged the wren to help it do penance for this misdeed. Nowadays children carry a long pole with a holly bush at the top - which is supposed to hide a captured wren.
In the UK Boxing Day is still a public holiday, some shops and supermarkets open nowadays, but banks and most offices remain closed.
The Twelve Days of Christmas - December 26th to January 6th
The sixteenth century saw England first officially celebrate the Twelve Days of Christmas. Shakespeare's Twelfth Night premiered in the first year of the seventeenth century, in a performance at the court of Elizabeth the First.
Advent is usually solemn and religious in spirit, while Saint Steven's Day marks the beginning of the twelve days of Christmas, a light hearted time given over to merry making and fun. It is a holiday of heart-warming homecoming and family gatherings, with candles glowing in the windows as a sign of welcome.
During the ancient 12-day Christmas celebration, it was considered unlucky to let the log in the fireplace stop burning. This log was called the Yule log and would be used to light the fire in New Year, to ensure that good luck carried on from year to year. The Yule Log custom was handed down from the Druids, but with the advent of gas and electric fires it is rarely observed nowadays.
Another custom in medieval times, was to hide a dried bean in a cake, the cake was then eaten on Twelfth Night (January 6), during the most boisterous party of the year. The finder of the bean became "King of the Bean" and ruled the party for the night.
Another eating myth is that for every mince pie you eat over the 12 days of Christmas you will have a month of good luck the following year!
However, according to A Celebration and History(ISBN 0-679-74038-4), by Leigh Grant, the written lyrics to "The Twelve Days of Christmas" first appeared in Mirth without Mischief in the early 1780s in England. Grant states that the tune to which these words are sung apparently dates back much further and came from France. Mirth without Mischief describes "The Twelve Days of Christmas" as a type of memory game played by children at that time. A leader recited the first verse, the next child recited the second verse, and so on until someone missed a verse and had to pay some kind of penalty in the game. There was no religious significance. At anyrate the popular urban myth makes a good story... at least as good as the song itself, so here is a slice of urban myth culture for you: A very famous song about this time of year is "The Twelve Days of Christmas", which has a very interesting history. During the period 1558 to 1829 Catholics in England were prohibited from any practice of their faith by law - private or public. It was a crime to be a Catholic. Some people say that the song was written to help young Catholics learn the tenets of their faith during that period when to be caught with anything in 'writing' indicating adherence to the Catholic faith could not only get you imprisoned, but could also get you hanged, drawn and quartered! The song's gifts are allegedly hidden meanings to the teachings of the faith. "True Love" mentioned refers to God. "Me" refers to every baptized person, here are the other lyrics and their other hidden meanings. However, some people say this is an Urban Myth, but you can make your own mind up.
14 декабря 2014
This week we are celebrating Ludwig Van Beethoven's Birthday!
German composer Ludwig van Beethoven is considered one of the most important figures in the history of music. He continued to compose even while losing his hearing and created some of his greatest works after becoming totally deaf.
Early years in Bonn
Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn, Germany, on December 16, 1770. He was the eldest of three children of Johann and Maria Magdalena van Beethoven. His father, a musician who liked to drink, taught him to play piano and violin. Young Ludwig was often pulled out of bed in the middle of the night and ordered to perform for his father's drinking companions, suffering beatings if he protested. As Beethoven developed, it became clear that to reach artistic maturity he would have to leave Bonn for a major musical center.
At the age of twelve Beethoven was a promising keyboard player and a talented pupil in composition of the court organist Christian Gottlob Neefe (1748–1798). He even filled in as church organist when Neefe was out of town. In 1783 Beethoven's first published work, a set of keyboard pieces, appeared, and in the 1780s he produced portions of a number of later works. In 1787 he traveled to Vienna, Austria, apparently to seek out Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791) as a teacher. He was forced to return to Bonn to care for his ailing mother, who died several months later. His father died in 1792.
Years in Vienna
In 1792 Beethoven went back to Vienna to study with the famous composer Joseph Haydn (1732–1809). Beethoven was not totally satisfied with Haydn's teaching, though, and he turned to musicians of lesser talent for extra instruction. Beethoven rapidly proceeded to make his mark as a brilliant keyboard performer and as a gifted young composer with a number of works to his credit. In 1795 his first mature published works appeared, and his career was officially launched.
Beethoven lived in Vienna from 1792 to his death in 1827, unmarried, among a circle of friends, independent of any kind of official position or private service. He rarely traveled, apart from summers in the countryside. In 1796 he made a trip to northern Germany, where his schedule included a visit to the court of King Frederick William of Prussia, an amateur cellist. Later Beethoven made several trips to Budapest, Hungary. In 1808 Beethoven received an invitation to become music director at Kassel, Germany. This alarmed several of his wealthy Viennese friends, who formed a group of backers and agreed to guarantee Beethoven an annual salary of 1,400 florins to keep him in Vienna. He thus became one of the first musicians in history to be able to live independently on his music salary.
Personal and professional problems
Although publishers sought out Beethoven and he was an able manager of his own business affairs, he was at the mercy of the crooked publishing practices of his time. Publishers paid a fee to composers for rights to their works, but there was no system of copyrights (the exclusive right to sell and copy a published work) or royalties (profits based on public performances of the material) at the time. As each new work appeared, Beethoven sold it to one or more of the best and most reliable publishers. But this initial payment was all he would receive, and both he and his publisher had to contend with rival publishers who brought out editions of their own. As a result Beethoven saw his works published in many different versions that were unauthorized, unchecked, and often inaccurate. Several times during his life in Vienna Beethoven started plans for a complete, authorized edition of his works, but these plans were never realized.
Beethoven's two main personal problems, especially in later life, were his deafness and his relationship with his nephew, Karl. Beethoven began to lose his hearing during his early years in Vienna, and the condition gradually grew worse. So severe was the problem that as early as 1802 he actually considered suicide. In 1815 he gave up hope of performing publicly as a pianist. After 1818 he was no longer able to carry on conversations with visitors, who were forced to communicate with him in writing. The second problem arose when he became Karl's guardian upon the death of his brother in 1815. Karl proved to be unstable and a continuing source of worry to an already troubled man.
Beethoven's deafness and his temper contributed to his reputation as an unpleasant personality. But reliable accounts and a careful reading of Beethoven's letters reveal him to be a powerful and self-conscious man, totally involved in his creative work but alert to its practical side as well, and one who is sometimes willing to change to meet current demands. For example, he wrote some works on commission, such as his cantata (a narrative poem set to music) for the Congress of Vienna, 1814.
Beethoven's deafness affected his social life, and it must have changed his personality deeply. In any event, his development as an artist would probably have caused a crisis in his relationship to the musical and social life of the time sooner or later. In his early years he wrote as a pianist-composer for an immediate and receptive public; in his last years he wrote for himself. Common in Beethoven biographies is the focus on Beethoven's awareness of current events and ideas, especially his attachment to the ideals of the French Revolution (1789–99; the revolt of the French middle class to end absolute power by French kings) and his faith in the brotherhood of men, as expressed in his lifelong goal of composing a version of "Ode to Joy," by Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805), realized at last in the Ninth Symphony. Also frequently mentioned is his genuine love of nature and outdoor life.
No one had ever heard anything like Beethoven's last works; they were too advanced for audiences and even professional musicians for some time after his death in 1827. Beethoven was aware of this. It seems, however, he expected later audiences to have a greater understanding of and appreciation for them. Beethoven reportedly told a visitor who was confused by some of his later pieces, "They are not for you but for a later age."Свернуть
07 декабря 2014
This week we are celebrating Roller Skates Patented Day.
Levant Richardson first to put steel ball bearings into a skate, patenton 9th of December 1884 and a whole new skating craze was born.
The four-wheeled turning roller skate, or quad skate, with four wheels set in two side-by-side pairs, was first designed in 1863 in New York City by James Leonard Plimpton in an attempt to improve previous designs. The skate contained a pivoting action using a rubber cushion, and this allowed the skater to skate a curve just by leaning to one side. qIt was a huge success, so much so that the first public skating rink was opened in 1866 in Newport, Rhode Island with the support of Plimpton. The design of the quad skate allowed easier turns and maneuverability. The quad skate came to dominate the industry for more than a century.
Arguably, the most important advance in the realistic use of roller skates as a pleasurable pastime took place in Birmingham, England in 1876 when William Bown patented a design for the wheels of roller skates. Bown's design embodied his effort to keep the two bearing surfaces of an axle, fixed and moving, apart. Bown worked closely with Joseph Henry Hughes, who drew up the patent for a ball or roller bearing race for bicycle and carriage wheels in 1877. Hughes' patent included all the elements of an adjustable system. These two men are responsible for modern day roller skate and skateboard wheels, as well as the ball bearing race inclusion in velocipedes — later to become motorbikes and automobiles.
Another improvement came in 1876, when the toe stop was first patented. This provided skaters with the ability to stop promptly upon tipping the skate onto the toe. Toe stops are still used today on most quad skates and on some types of inline skates.
Roller skates were being mass-produced in America as early as the 1880s, the first of the sport's several boom periods. Micajah C. Henley of Richmond, Indiana produced thousands of skates every week during peak sales. Henley skates were the first skate with adjustable tension via a screw, the ancestor of the kingbolt mechanism on modern quad skates.
In 1884 Levant M. Richardson received a patent for the use of steel ball bearings in skate wheels so as to reduce friction. This also allowed skaters to increase speed with minimum effort. In 1898, Richardson started the Richardson Ball Bearing and Skate Company, which provided skates to most professional skate racers of the time, including Harley Davidson (no relation to the Harley-Davidson motorcycle brand).
The design of the quad skate has remained essentially unchanged since then, and in fact remained as the dominant roller skate design until nearly the end of the 20th century.Свернуть